Richards, T., Pettet, M., Askren, K., Grabowski, T., Wallis, P., Northey, M., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (in press). Event-related potentials in children with and without learning disabilities d uring a sentence judgment task. Developmental Neuropsychology.

Davidson, M., & Berninger, V. (in press, August 29, 2016). Idea generating, planning and translating in expressing and defending opinions in essays of 10- and 12- year-old writers. International J ournal of Education and Psychological Research.

Richards, T., Peverly, S., Wolf, A., Abbott, R., Tanimoto, S., Thompson, R., & Berninger, V. (2016, July 22 on line). Idea units in notes and summaries for read texts by keyboard and pencil in middle childhood students with specific learning disabilities: Cognitive and brain findings. Trends in Neuroscience and Education. Pub ID TINE73 -and-education/ NIHMSID 806920

Niedo, J., & Berninger, V. W. (2016). Strategies typically developing writers use for translating thought into the next sentence and evolving text: Implications for assessment and instruction. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 6, 276-292. . NIHMS 814082

Wolf, B., Berninger, V., & Abbott, R (2016, July 23 on-line). Effective beginning handwriting instruction: Multimodal, consistent format for 2 years, and linked to spelling and composing. Reading and Writing. An Interdisciplinary Journal, pp. 1-19. DOI: 10.1007/s11145-016-9674-4 NIHMS 805554 Available as ‘Online First’

Thompson, R. , Tanimoto, S, Abbott, R., Nielsen, K., Geselowitz, K., Lyman, R., Habermann, K., Mickail, T., Raskind, M., Peverly, S. Nagy, W., and Berninger, V. (July 19, 2016 on line). Relationships between language input and letter output modes in writing notes and summaries for students in grades 4 to 9 with persisting writing disabilities. Assistive Technology Journal. DOI: 10.1080/10400435.2016.1199066 Link for on line published paper:

Abbott, R., Fayol, M., Zorman, M., Casalis, S., Nagy, W., & Berninger, V. (in press). Relationships of French and English morphophonemic orthographies to word reading, spelling, and reading comprehension during early and middle childhood. Canadian Journal of School Psychology. NIHMS 759762

Eckert, M., Berninger, V., Vaden K., Gebregziabher, M., Tsu, L. & Dyslexia Data Consortium. (2016). Gray matter findings in reading disability: A combined meta-analytic and direct analysis approach. eNeuro, 3, 1–15 . e0103-15.2015

Eckert, M., Berninger, V., Hoeft, F., Vaden, K., & Dyslexia Data Consortium. (in press).Dyslexia in a case with bilateral perisylvian syndrome. Cortex.

Bazerman, C., Applebee, A., Berninger, V., Brandt, D. Graham, S., Matsuda, P., Murphy, S., Rowe, D., Schleppegrell. (in press). Taking the long view on writing development. Research in the Teaching of English.

Longcamp, M., Richards, T.L., Velay, J.L., Berninger, V. (in press, expected  06/16). Neuroanatomy of handwriting and related reading and writing skills in adults and children with and without learning disabilities: French-American connections. Pratiques     NIHMSID  757104

Berninger, V. & Morphy, P. ( 2016, February). Posted article on The SES Indicator..  American Psychological Association.

Nielsen, K., Abbott, R., Griffin, W., Lott, J., Raskind, W., & Berninger, V. (2016). Evidence-based reading and writing assessment for dyslexia in adolescents and young adults. Learning Disabilities. A Multidisciplinary Journal, 21, 38-56. NIHMS 752395 PMCID: PMC4739804      doi:  10.18666/LDMJ-2016-V21-I1-6971

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Cook, C., & Nagy, W.  (2016). Relationships of attention and executive functions to oral language, reading, and writing skills and systems in middle childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1-16. DOI: 10.1177/0022219415617167 NIHMS 721063. Posted online 1/8/16

Davidson, M., & Berninger, V. (2015). Informative, compare and contrast, and persuasive essays of fifth and seventh graders: Not all essay writing the same. PsychoeducationaAssessment. DOI: 10.1177/0734282915604977 NIHMS 721074

Tanimoto, S., Thompson, R., Berninger, V., Nagy W., & Abbott, R. (in press, April 26, 2015). Computerized writing and reading instruction for students in grades 4 to 9 with specific learning disabilities affecting written language. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. NIHMS 721216

Berninger, V., Richards, T., & Abbott, R. (2015, published on line April 21, 2015). Differential diagnosis of dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD: Behavioral and neuroimaging evidence. Reading and Writing. An Interdisciplinary  Journal, 28, 1119-1153.  doi:10.1007/s11145-015-9565-0 A2 contains supplementary material  available to authorized users: NIHMS683238  Publ ID 2615-04-21_0002   PMC ID # (forthcoming)

Richards, T.L, Grabowksi, T., Askren, K., Boord, P., Yagle, K.,Mestre, Z., Robinson, O., Welker, D. Gulliford, V, Nagy, W., &  Berninger, V.  (2015, posted on line March 28). Contrasting brain patterns of writing-related DTI parameters, fMRI connectivity, and DTI-fMRI connectivity correlations in children with and without dysgraphia or dyslexia Neuroimage Clinical.   10.1016/j.nicl.2015.03.018 NIHMS695386  PMC 4473717

Alstad, Z.., Sanders, E., Abbott, R., Barnett, A., Hendersen, S., Connelly, V., & Berninger, V. (2015). Modes of alphabet letter production during middle childhood and adolescence: Interrelationships with each other and other writing skills. Journal of Writing Research, 6(3), 199-231.

#644747: NIHMS644747 [NCBI tracking system #16689920]

Berninger, V., Nagy, W., Tanimoto,S., Thompson, R., & Abbott, R. (2015, published on line October 30, 2014). Computer instruction in handwriting, spelling, and composing for students with specific learning disabilities in grades 4 to 9. Computers and Education, 81, 154-168. DOI information: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.10.00 Posted NIHMS636683 NIHMSID Publ.ID: CAE2713 PubMed Central

Niedo, J., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (2014). Predicting levels of reading and writing achievement in typically developing, English-speaking 2nd and 5th graders. Learning and Individual Differences, 32C, 54-68. Published on line April 18, 2014 doi  10.1016/j.lindif.2014.03.013  NIHMS ID: NIHMS580076    Published PubMed Central (PMC) for public access May 1, 2015:

DelCampo, R., Buchanan, W., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (2015). Levels of phonology relationships to reading and writing in middle childhood. Reading and Writing. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 28, 183-198  DOI 10.1007/s11145-014-9520-5 NIHMS ID: 603808              Published on line June 12, 2014 PubMed Central

Rubenstein, K., Raskind, W., Berninger, V., Matsushita,, M., & Wijsman, E. (2014). Genome scan for cognitive trait loci of dyslexia: rapid naming and rapid switching of letters, numbers, and colors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 165, 345-356. NIHMS ID -595138    PMCID: PMC4053475

Berninger, V., & Abbott, R (2013) Children with dyslexia who are and are not gifted in verbal reasoning. Gifted Child Quarterly, 57, .223-233. doi 10.1177/0016986213500342.

Published online August 30 as part of October, 2013 GCQ, hard copy distributed in September, 2013. Posted on PubMedCentral on 2013-09-22 15:41:46 for release August 30, 2014. NIHMSID #526583

Niedo, J., Lee, Y. L., Breznitz, Z., & Berninger, V. (2014, May; 2013, October 28 on line). Computerized silent reading rate and strategy instruction for fourth graders at risk in silent reading rate. Learning Disability Quarterly, 37(2), 100-110. DOI 10.1177/0731948713507263 NIHMSID #526584 Pub Med Central version can be released October 28, 2014 Published PubMed Central (PMC) for public access May 1, 2015:

Reitz , F., Richards, T., Wu, K., Boord, P., Askren, K., Lewis, T., & Berninger, V. (2013). A low-cost, computer-interfaced drawing pad for fMRI studies of dysgraphia and dyslexia. Sensors, 13, 5099-5108; doi:10.3390/s130405099 PMCID:PMC3673127

Raskind, W., Peters, B., Richards, T., Eckert, M., & Berninger, V. (2012). The Genetics of reading disabilities: From phenotype to candidate genes.  Frontiers in Psychology. 3, 601. Published online 2013 January 7. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00601 PMCID: PMC3538356

Bahr, R. H., Silliman, E. R., Berninger, V. W., & Dow, M. (2012). Linguistic pattern analysis of misspellings of typically developing writers in grades 1 to 9. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 55, 1587-1599. First published on April 3, 2012 as doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/10-0335).

Silliman, E., & Berninger, V. (2011). Cross-disciplinary dialogue about the nature of oral and written language problems in the context of developmental, academic, and phenotypic profiles. Topics in Language Disorders, 31, 6-23. free access at

Berninger, V., Lee, Y., Abbott, R. & Breznitz, Z. (2011 published on line; 2013). Teaching children with dyslexia to spell in reading-writers’ workshop. Annals of Dyslexia, 63 (1). DOI: 10.1007/s11881-011-0054-0

Rubenstein, K., Matsushita, M., Berninger, V., Raskind, W., & Wijsman, E. (2011). Genome scan for spelling deficits: Effects of verbal IQ on models of transmission and trait gene localization. Behavioral Genetics. An International Journal Devoted to the Inheritance of Behavior, 41, 31-42.

Peter, B., Raskind, W., Matsushita, M., Lisowski, M., Vu, T., Berninger, V., Wijsman, E., & Brkanac, Z. (2011). Replication of CNTNAP2 association with nonword repetition and support for FOXP2 association with timed reading and motor activities in a dyslexia family sample. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 3, 39-49.

Richards, T., Berninger, V., Stock, P., Altemeier, L., Trivedi, P., & Maravilla, K. (2011).Differences between good and poor child writers on fMRI contrasts for writing newly taught and highly practiced letter forms. Reading and Writing, 24(5), 493-516.

Brooks, A., Berninger, V., Abbott, R., & Richards, T. (2011) Letter naming and letter writing reversals of some children with dyslexia: Symptoms of inefficient phonological and orthographic loops of working memory? Developmental Neuropsychology, 36, 847-868.

Graham, S., Berninger, V., & Abbott, R. (2011). Are attitudes toward writing and reading separable constructs? A study with primary grade children. Reading and Writing Quarterly.

Berninger, V., Nagy, W., & Beers, S. (2011) Child writers’ construction and reconstruction of single sentences and construction of multi-sentence texts: Contributions of syntax and transcription to translation. Reading and Writing. An Interdisciplinary Journal,102, 151-182.DOI 10.1007/s11145-010-9262-y PMC3048336

Berninger, V., & Richards, T. (2010). Inter-relationships among behavioral markers, genes, brain, and treatment in dyslexia and dysgraphia. Future Neurology, 5, 597-617.   (doi: 10.2217/fnl.10.22)

Berninger, V., & Abbott, D. (2010). Listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension and written expression: Related yet unique language systems in grades 1, 3, 5, and 7. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 635–651.

Berninger, V., & O’Malley May, M. (2011). Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment for specific learning disabilities involving impairments in written and/or oral language. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44, 167-183.

Abbott, R., Berninger, V., & Fayol, M. (2010). Longitudinal relationships of levels of language in writing and between writing and reading in grades 1 to 7. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 281-298.

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Swanson, H. L., Lovitt, D., Trivedi, P., Lin, S., Gould, L., Youngstrom, M., Shimada, S., and Amtmann, D. (2010). Relationship of word- and sentence-level working memory to reading and writing in second, fourth, and sixth grade. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 41,179-193.

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Trivedi, P., Olson, E., Gould, L., Hiramatsu, S., Holsinger, M., McShane, M., Murphy, H., Norton, J., Scuilli Boyd, A., & York Westhaggen, S.  (2010). Applying the multiple dimensions of reading fluency to assessment and instruction. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28, 3-18. © 2009 Sage Publications 10.1177/0734282909336083  hosted at

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Nagy, W., & Carlisle, J.  (2010). Growth in phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness in grades 1 to 6. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 39, 141-163. available on SpringerLink

Garcia, N., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (2010). Predicting poor, average, and superior spellers in grades 1 to 6 from phonological, orthographic, and morphological, spelling, or reading composites. Written Language and Literacy, 13, 61-99.


Berninger, V., McHale-Small, M., Dunn, A., & Alston-Abel, N. (2016). Best professional practices in school psychology for helping all students succeed. Translating Every Child Succeeds Act (ESSA) into interdisciplinary teamwork. The School Psychologist, 70, No. 1 pp. 7-15, Winter 2016. Published by Division 16 of the American Psychological Association.

Berninger, V. & Morphy, P. (2015, January). Posted article on The SES Indicator (  American Psychological Association.

Berninger, V. (2013, March). Educating students in the computer age to be multilingual by hand. Invited Commentary on “The Handwriting Debate” NASBE Policy Debate (2012, September) for National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE), Arlington, VA.        

Berninger, V. (May/June 2012). Strengthening the mind’s eye: The case for continued handwriting instruction in the 21st century. (pp. 28-31). Principal. National Association of Elementary School Principals.  Invited.

BOOKS (recent and selected ones from past)

Berninger, V. (Ed.) (2012). Past, present, and future contributions of cognitive writing research to cognitive psychology. New York: Psychology Press/Taylor Francis Group.

Fayol, M., Alamargot, D., & Berninger, V. (Eds.) (2012). Translation of thought to written text while composing: Advancing theory, knowledge, methods, and applications. New York: Psychology Press/Taylor Francis Group.

Arfé, B., Dockrell, J., & Berninger, V. (Eds.) (2015). Writing development in children with hearing loss, dyslexia, or oral language problems: Implications for assessment and instruction. NY: Oxford University Press. Also available as an ebook.

McCardle, P., & Berninger, V. (Eds.) (2015).Narrowing the achievement gap for Native American students: Paying the educational debt. New York: Routledge.(All Royalties go to foundations supporting Native American students.) See To view the video recording of the co-authors' conversation for the Chapter by Iisaaksiichaa Ross Braine and Glaadai Tommy Segundo on Model for Narrowing the Achievement Gap for Native Students from Middle and High School to College Graduation , please access UW OMAD/College of Education Discussion:

Native American Outreach at:

Berninger, V. W. (2015). Interdisciplinary frameworks for schools: Best professional practices for serving the needs of all students.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.  Companion Websites with Readings and Resources and Advisory Panel. All royalties go to Division 16 to support these websites and develop future editions.

Berninger, V., & Wolf, B. (2016). Dyslexia, dysgraphia, OWL LD, and dyscalculia: Lessons from teaching and science, Second Edition. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Also available as e-book.

Berninger, V. (1998). Process assessment of the learner (PAL). Guides for intervention. Reading and Writing.  Also Intervention Kit with Handwriting Lessons and Talking Letters. San Antonio, TX:  The Psychological Corporation. Currently distributed by Pearson.

Berninger, V., & Richards, T.  (2002). Brain literacy for educators and psychologists.  New York:  Academic Press.  Invited to write second edition.

Berninger, V., & Wolf, B.  (2009). Helping students with dyslexia and dysgraphia make connections: Differentiated instruction lesson plans in reading and writing. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Spiral book with teaching plans from University of Washington Research Program.

BOOK CHAPTERS (selected recent ones)

Thompson, R., Tanimoto, S., Berninger, V., & Nagy, W. (2016). Design studies for stylus and finger-based interactions in writing instruction on tablets. In T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler, & M. Payton (Eds.) Revolutionizing education with digital ink. Springer International Publishing AG, Cham. Human-Computer Interaction Series,  978-3-319-31191-3, 339576_1_En (4

Berninger, V., & Joshi, M. (2016). New directions in preservice and inservice professional development for teaching students with and without specific learning disabilities in middle childhood and early adolescence.In R. Schiff & M. Joshi (Eds). Handbook of Interventions in Learning Disabilities, in Literacy Studies13. Switzerland: Springer.    DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-31235-4_16

Silliman, E., Bahr, R., Nagy, W., & Berninger, V. (in press). Language bases of spelling in writing during early and middle childhood: Grounding applications to struggling writers in typical writing development. In B.Miller, P. McCardle, & V. Connelly (Eds.) Development of writing skills in individuals with learning difficulties. Amsterdam: Brill.

James, K., Jao, J. R., & Berninger, V. (2015). The development of multi-leveled writing systems of the brain: Brain lessons for writing instruction. MacArthur, C., Graham, S., & Fitzgerald, J. (Eds.), Handbook of Writing Research (pp. 116-129). New York: Guilford.

Berninger, V., & McCardle, P. (2015). The importance of combining culturally sensitive and evidence-based literacy instruction. In P. McCardle, & V. Berninger, V. (Eds.), Narrowing the Achievement Gap for Native American Students: Paying the educational debt (pp. 1-5). New York: Routledge.

McCardle, P., & Berninger, V. (2015). Visions for the future of Indian education: Thought to guide ongoing work at the intersection of evidence-based practice and culturally sensitive education. In P. McCardle, & V. Berninger, V. (Eds.), Narrowing the Achievement Gap for Native American Students: Paying the educational debt . (pp. 196-206). New York: Routledge.

Wingert, K., Del Campo, R., & Berninger, V. (2015). Person behind the written language learning disability. In Bahr, R., & Silliman, E. (Eds.) Handbook of Communication Disorders (pp. 226-236). London: Routledge.

Berninger, V., Del Campo, R., & Alstad, Z. (2015). Dyslexia: Individualizing Instruction. In G. Scarlett (Eds.), Classroom Management: An A- to Z-Guide (pp. 279-285). Sage.

Berninger, V., Swanson, H.L., Griffin, W. (2014). Understanding developmental and learning disabilities within functional-systems frameworks: Building on the contributions of J.P. Das. In T. Papadopoulos, R. Parrilla, & J. Kirby (Eds), Cognition, intelligence, and achievement (pp. 397-418). India: Elsevier.

Hayes, J.R., & Berninger, V. (2014). Cognitive processes in writing: A framework. In Arfé, B., Dockrell, J., & Berninger, V. (Eds.). Writing development and instruction in children with hearing, speech, and language disorders. NY: Oxford University Press.

Berninger, V., & Niedo, J. (2014). Individualizing instruction for students with oral and written language difficulties. In J. Mascolo, D. Flanagan, and V. Alfonso (Eds.) Essentials of planning, selecting and tailoring intervention: Addressing the needs of unique learners (pp. 231-264). New York: Wiley.

Berninger, V., & Swanson, H. L. (2013). Diagnosing and treating specific learning disabilities in reference to the brain’s working memory system. Chapter 17 In H. Lee Swanson, Karen Harris, & Steve Graham (Eds). Handbook of Learning Disabilities (2nd ed) (pp. 307-325). New York: Guilford.

Richards, T., & Berninger, V. (2013). Brain mapping of language processing using functional MRI connectivity and diffusion tensor imaging. In F. Signorelli and D. Chirchiglia (Eds.) Brain mapping, and the endeavor to understand the working brain (pp. 77-93). Open Access. InTech-open science|open minds . ISBN 980-953-307-973-3.

Berninger, V., & Dunn, M. (2012). Brain and behavioral response to intervention for specific reading, writing, and math disabilities: What works for whom?  In Wong, B., & Butler, D. (Ed.) Learning about LD, 4th Edition (pp. 59-89). Elsevier/ Academic Press.

Berninger, V., & Hayes, J.R. (2012).Longitudinal case studies of twenty children on writing treks in grades 1 to 5. In M. Fayol, D. Alamargot, & Berninger, V. (Eds.). Translation of thought to written text while composing: Advancing theory, knowledge, methods, and applications. (pp. 95-179). Psychology Press/Taylor Francis Group/Routledge.

Berninger, V., Rijlaarsdam, G., & Fayol, M. (2012). Mapping research questions about translation to methods, measures, and models. In M. Fayol, D. Alamargot, & Berninger, V. (Eds.). Translation of thought to written text while composing: Advancing theory, knowledge, methods, and applications (pp. 27-67). Psychology Press/Taylor Francis Group/Routledge.

Berninger, V., & Chanquoy, L. (2012). What writing is and how it changes across early and middle childhood development: A multidisciplinary perspective. In E. Grigorenko, E. Mambrino, & D. Preiss (Eds.), Writing: A mosaic of perspectives and views (Ch. 5, pp. 65-84). New York: Psychology Press.

Richards, T., Berninger, V., & Fayol, M. (2012). The writing brain of normal child writers and children with writing disabilities: Generating ideas and transcribing them through the orthographic loop. In E. Grigorenko, E. Mambrino, & D. Preiss (Eds.), Writing: A mosaic of perspectives and views (Ch. 6, pp. 85-105). New York: Psychology Press.

Berninger, V., & Richards, T. (2012). The writing brain: Coordinating sensory/motor, language, and cognitive systems in working memory architecture. In V. Berninger (Ed.). Past, present, and future contributions of cognitive writing research to cognitive psychology) (pp. 537-563).  New York: Psychology Press.

Fayol, M., Alamargot, D., & Berninger, V. (2012). From cave writers to elite scribes to professional writers to universal writers translation is fundamental to writing. In M. Fayol, D. Alamargot, & Berninger, V. (Eds.). Translation of thought to written text while composing: Advancing theory, knowledge, methods, and applications (pp. 3-14). Psychology Press/Taylor Francis Group/Routledge.

Berninger, V., Fayol, M., & Alamargot, D. (2012). Learning to spell words with the pattern analyzer, oracle, scribe, and silent orthographer. In M. Fayol, D. Alamargot, & Berninger, V. (Eds.). Translation of thought to written text while composing: Advancing theory, knowledge, methods, and applications (pp. 71-93). Psychology Press/Taylor Francis Group/Routledge.


Berninger, V., & Richards, T. (2015, October). Research confirms what many teachers know: Learning disabilities is a plural word. Examiner, International Dyslexia Association.

Wolf, B., & Berninger, V. (2015, March 20). Specific learning disabilities: Plural, definable, diagnosable, and treatable. Dyslexia Connections, International Dyslexia Association Newsletter for Parents.

TESTS (selected)

Berninger, V. (2007a). Process Assessment of the Learner, 2nd Edition.  Diagnostic for Reading and Writing (PAL-II RW). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. Now Pearson.

Berninger, V. (2007b). Process Assessment of the Learner Diagnostic for Math (PAL II-M). The San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. Now Pearson.


Berninger, V.  (1998). Process Assessment of the Learner (PAL) Intervention Kit. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. Manuals for Talking Letters and Handwriting Automaticity Lessons