Virginia Berninger

Emeritus Professor

Overview of Virginia W. Berninger’s interdisciplinary career

Academic appointments

1986-2016 University of Washington, Educational Psychology, Assistant Professor (1986), Associate Professor (1989), Full Professor (1993-2016), Professor Emerita (beginning Dec 1, 2016), Member of the Graduate Faculty (1986 to Nov 30 2016); Program Coordinator, APA accredited and NASP approve School Psychology Program, 1993-2000; Director of Internship Training, School Psychology Program, 2001-06; Learning Sciences and Human Development, 2007- 2016; Director, University Brain Education Technology Center (UBET) Education Site, 2000-2006; Research Affiliate and then Coordinator Research Specialization for Learning Disabilities, 2000-2016, Eunice Kennedy Shriver Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center (IDDRC); Member, Center for Study of Capable Youth, University of Washington, 1989-2000.

1983-86 Assistant Professor, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts. 1985 Assistant Professor of Psychology (part-time), Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts.

1981-83 Instructor in Psychology, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Licensure and clinical experience

1987-    Psychologist, State of Washington, No. 1161.
1982-90 Psychologist, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, No. 3035.
1983-86 Member of Special and Scientific Staff, New England Medical Center, Boston,   
1980-83 Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Judge Baker predoctoral internship
program, 1980-81; infant and toddler, preschool, and school age assessments,
Ambulatory Pediatrics; postdoctoral clinical, Developmental Evaluation Clinic
(University Affiliated Program), 1981-1982; post-licensure, 1982-1983.
1984-85 Principal Psychologist, Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center, Waltham,  MA
(a University affiliated program for developmental disabilities); half time.

Teaching experience
  • 1986-2016: Taught courses in educational psychology (school psychology and learning sciences and human development), University of Washington
  • 1985: Research methods in experimental psychology, Wellesley College
  • 1980-83: Taught Pediatricians about Learning Disabilities,  Boston’s Children’s Hospital
  • 1977-79: Graduate teaching assistantships, Ph.D. psychology program, Johns Hopkins
  • 1967-76: Classroom teacher, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Baldwin-Whitehall public schools; learning disabilities resource teacher, Frederick, MD, public schools; reading specialist, Baltimore, MD public schools
Research Experience during Graduate School and Postdoctoral Training
  • 1976-1979 Supervised research activities with Psychology Professors Howard Egeth, Catherine Garvey, and Clinton DeSoto, Johns Hopkins University
  • 1978-1980 NIMH predoctoral training fellowship, 1980, Research Assistant, study on gifted, learning disabled children, Johns Hopkins.
  • 1980-1982 Research activities in Ambulatory Pediatrics
  • 1982-1983 Research activities in Psychiatry (Professor Peter Wolff's laboratory)
Research grants

1984-1986 Principal Investigator, Validation of a Modification of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) for Use with Adults with Severe Musculoskeletal Disorders (Project in Center Grant awarded by NIHR to Bruce M. Gans, M.D.).
1987-1992  Educational Psychology Representative.  A preservice interdisciplinary model:  Birth to five-year-old hearing-impaired children and their families (Principal investigator, Marie Thompson).  Funded, U.S. Department of Education.
1987-1988 Principal Investigator, Microcomputer-assisted diagnosis of writing disabilities.  University of Washington Graduate School Research Fund. 
1989-1990  Principal Investigator, Early intervention to prevent reading disabilities in urban, minority children.  Institute for Ethnic Studies in the United States. 
1989-1992  Principal Investigator, Component processes in writing disabilities.  National Institute of Health (NIH), National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NCHD).
1992-1994  Principal Investigator, Interventions for component writing disabilities
Shannon Award, NIH, NICHD.
1995-2000 Principal Investigator, Interventions for component writing disabilities. RO1, NIH, NICHD.
2001-2006 with two years of no-cost extension to 2008.  Interventions for component writing disabilities. RO1, NIH, NICHD.
1993-1996 Co-Principal Investigator (with Nancy Robinson, P.I.).  Identifying and nurturing early mathematical talent.  Department of Education.  Javits Gifted and Talented Students Education Grant Program.
1995-2000, 2000-2005 with one year no cost extension to 2006. Principal Investigator, Learning Disabilities Center: Link to Schools and Biology, NIH P50 Center for Multidisciplinary Learning Disabilities Research.  NIH, NICHD
2011-2016, Principal Investigator, Defining and Treating Specific Written Language Learning Disabilities. NIH P50 Center for Multidisciplinary Learning Disabilities Research, NIH, NICHD.
2007-2012, Investigator, Genetic Contributions to Component Phenotypes of Dyslexia
(P.I. Wendy Raskind, M.D., Ph.D).  NIH, NICHD.
2010-2012 Co-Principal Investigator (Principal Investigator Zvia Breznitz, University of Haifa), United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation Award. Word, sentence, and passage-reading fluency training in grade 4 and reading and writing fluency training  
2013-2015, with extension to 2016.  Investigator, Life Span in Writing Development (P.I., Charles Bazerman, University Santa Barbara).  Spencer Foundation.

Selected Awards/Recognition for Professional Activities

Fellow, Society for the Scientific Study of School Psychology, 1994- Fellow, American Psychological Association, 1995- Alan S. Kaufman “Excellence in Assessment Award,” Fordham University, May 10, 2013 Lifetime Achievement Award, School Neuropsychology Society, July 10, 2013 Samuel Torrey Orton Award, International Dyslexia Association, 2015 

Assessment and instructional resources


1. All Students:

Berninger, V. W. (2015). Interdisciplinary frameworks for schools: Best professional practices for serving the needs of all students.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.  Companion Websites with Readings and Resources and Advisory Panel. All royalties go to Division 16 to support these websites and develop future editions.
Berninger, V., McHale-Small, M., Dunn, A., & Alston-Abel, N. (2016). Best professional practices in school psychology for helping all students succeed. Translating Every Child Succeeds Act (ESSA) into interdisciplinary teamwork. The School Psychologist, 70, No. 1 pp. 7-15, Winter 2016. Published by Division 16 of the American Psychological Association.
Berninger, V., Dunn, A., Lin, S., & Shimada, S. (2004). School evolution: Scientist-practitioner educators creating optimal learning environments for ALL students.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37, 500-508. 

2. Three Tiers of Assessment: Screen-Intervene for Prevention, Problem-Solving Consultation, and Diagnosis of Specific Learning Disabilities:

Berninger, V. (2007a). Process Assessment of the Learner, 2nd Edition.  Diagnostic for Reading and Writing (PAL-II RW). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. Now Pearson.
Berninger, V. (2007b). Process Assessment of the Learner Diagnostic for Math (PAL II-M). The San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. Now Pearson.
Berninger, V. (2007c). Process Assessment of the Learner II User’s Guide. San Antonio, TX: Pearson (formerly Harcourt/PsyCorp). (CD format) ISBN 0158661818  Second Revision issued August, 2008. Decoder for Table of Contents 2009. Guidance in making differential diagnoses based on programmatic research on assessment-instructional links In all PAL Reading and Writing Diagnostic Kits and PAL II Math Diagnostic Kits. Currently distributed by Pearson.

3. Specific Learning Disabilities:

Silliman, E., & Berninger, V. (2011). Cross-disciplinary dialogue about the nature of oral and written language problems in the context of developmental, academic, and phenotypic profiles. Topics in Language Disorders, 31, 6-23. free access at
Wolf, B., & Berninger, V. (2015, March 20). Specific learning disabilities: Plural, definable, diagnosable, and treatable. Dyslexia Connections, International Dyslexia Association Newsletter for Parents.
Berninger, V., & Richards, T. (2015, October). Research confirms what many teachers know: Learning disabilities is a plural word. Examiner, International Dyslexia Association.

Instructional resources

1. For students living in low income families:

Berninger, V. & Morphy, P. ( 2016, February).  Strategies for underperforming schools:
Research shows one of the leading causes of low school achievement in the United States is poverty.Posted article on The SES Indicator (  American Psychological Association.

2. For writing:

Berninger, V. (2013, March). Educating students in the computer age to be multilingual by hand. Invited Commentary on “The Handwriting Debate” NASBE Policy Debate (2012, September) for National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE), Arlington, VA.
Berninger, V. (May/June 2012). Strengthening the mind’s eye: The case for continued handwriting instruction in the 21st century. (pp. 28-31). Principal. National Association of Elementary School Principals.  Invited.
Berninger, V. (2009).  Highlights of programmatic, interdisciplinary research on writing. Learning Disabilities. Research and Practice, 24, 68-79. Invited.  NIHMS 124304 PM C2717633
James, K., Jao, J. R., & Berninger, V. (2015). The development of multi-leveled writing systems of the brain: Brain lessons for writing instruction. MacArthur, C., Graham, S., & Fitzgerald, J. (Eds.), Handbook of Writing Research (pp. 116-129). New York: Guilford.

3. For reading and writing:

Berninger, V., & Abbott, S.  (2003). PAL Research-supported reading and writing lessons. Instructional Manual and Reproducibles. San Antonio, TX:  Harcourt/PsyCorp. Currently distributed by Pearson.
Berninger, V. (1998). Process assessment of the learner (PAL). Guides for intervention. Reading and Writing.  Also Intervention Kit with Handwriting Lessons and Talking Letters. San Antonio, TX:  The Psychological Corporation. Currently distributed by Pearson.

4. For specific learning disabilities (SLDs):

Berninger, V., & Wolf, B. (2016). Dyslexia, dysgraphia, OWL LD, and dyscalculia: Lessons from teaching and science, Second Edition. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Also available as e-book.
Berninger, V., & Wolf, B.  (2009). Helping students with dyslexia and dysgraphia make connections: Differentiated instruction lesson plans in reading and writing. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Spiral book with teaching plans from University of Washington Research Program.
Berninger, V., & Niedo, J. (2014). Individualizing instruction for students with oral and written language difficulties. In J. Mascolo, D. Flanagan, and V. Alfonso (Eds.) Essentials of planning, selecting and tailoring intervention: Addressing the needs of unique learners (pp. 231-264). New York: Wiley.

Understanding the Multidisciplinary Research Related to Learning and Teaching

Berninger, V., & Swanson, H. L. (2018). Role of working memory in the language learning mechanism by ear, mouth, eye, and hand in individuals with and without specific learning disabilities in written language. In Alloway, T. P. (Ed.), Working Memory and Neurodevelopmental Disorders (pp. 89-105). Abingdon, Oxon, UD. Taylor & Francis Routledge

Berninger, V., & Joshi, M. (2016). New directions in preservice and inservice professional development for teaching students with and without specific learning disabilities in middle childhood and early adolescence.In R. Schiff & M. Joshi (Eds).  Interventions in Learning Disabilities. A Handbook on Systematic Training Programs for Individuals with Learning Disabilities.  (pp. 255-274). Literacy Studies: Perspectives from Cognitive Neurosciences, Linguistics, Psychology and Education. Switzerland: Springer. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-31235-4_16

Arfé, B., Dockrell, J., & Berninger, V. (Eds.) (2015). Writing development in children with hearing loss, dyslexia, or oral language problems: Implications for assessment and instruction. NY: Oxford University Press. Also available as an ebook.

Berninger, V., Swanson, H.L., Griffin, W. (2014). Understanding developmental and learning disabilities within functional-systems frameworks: Building on the contributions of J.P. Das. In T. Papadopoulos, R. 

Parrilla, & J. Kirby (Eds), Cognition, intelligence, and achievement (pp. 397-418). India: Elsevier.

Berninger, V., & Dunn, M. (2012). Brain and behavioral response to intervention for specific reading, writing, and math disabilities: What works for whom?  In Wong, B., & Butler, D. (Ed.) Learning about LD, 4th Edition (pp. 59-89). Elsevier/ Academic Press.

Berninger, V. (Ed.) (2012). Past, present, and future contributions of cognitive writing research to cognitive psychology. New York: Psychology Press/Taylor Francis Group.

Fayol, M., Alamargot, D., & Berninger, V. (Eds.) (2012). Translation of thought to written text while composing: Advancing theory, knowledge, methods, and applications. New York: Psychology Press/Taylor Francis Group.

Berninger, V., & Richards, T. (2010). Inter-relationships among behavioral markers, genes, brain, and treatment in dyslexia and dysgraphia. Future Neurology, 5, 597-617. (doi: 10.2217/fnl.10.22)   NIHMS 226931    PMC 2953808

Berninger, V., & Richards, T.  (2002). Brain literacy for educators and psychologists.  New York:  Academic Press.  Currently distributed by Elsevier. Invited to write second edition.

Berninger, V. (2000). Development of language by hand and its connections to language by ear, mouth, and eye.  Topics in Language Disorders, 20, 65-84.

Berninger, V. (1994). Reading and writing acquisition:  A developmental neuropsychological perspective.  Electronic version available, 2014-present.  Beginning 2017 to be distributed by Hachette Book Group

Understanding cultural issues

McCardle, P., & Berninger, V. (Eds.) (2015).Narrowing the achievement gap for Native American students: Paying the educational debt. New York: Routledge.Availablein hard copy and paperback. (All Royalties go to foundations supporting Native American students.) See

To view the video recording of the co-authors' conversation for the Chapter by Iisaaksiichaa Ross Braine and Glaadai Tommy Segundo on Model for Narrowing the Achievement Gap for Native Students from Middle and High School to College Graduation , please access UW OMAD/College of Education Discussion: Native American Outreach at:

Selected, Representative Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

Assessment Research (Behavioral or Behavioral and Brain) for Specific Learning Disabilities and Typical Literacy Development

Berninger, V., Richards, T., Nielsen, K., Dunn, M., Raskind, M., & Abbott, R.  (in press, 2018).  Behavioral and brain evidence for language by ear, by mouth, by eye, and by hand and motor skills in literacy learning. International Journal of School and Educational Psychology.

Nielsen, K., Henderson, S., Barnett, A., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V.  (2018). Insights about the role of movement in literacy learning based on Movement ABC-2 Checklist Parent Ratings for students with and without persisting specific learning disabilities.  Learning Disabilities. A Multidisciplinary Journal, 23(1), 10-23NIHMSID 950920    

Sanders, E., Berninger, V., & Abbott, R. (2018). Sequential prediction of literacy achievement for specific learning disabilities contrasting in impaired levels of language in grades 4 to 9Journal of Learning Disabilities, 51(2), 137-157. doi: 10.1177/0022219417691048NIHMS 846089

Abbott, R., Mickail, T., Richards, T., Renninger, A., Hidi, S., Beers, S. , & Berninger, V.  (2017, July).  Understanding interest and self-efficacy in the reading and writing of students with persisting specific learning disabilities during middle childhood and early adolescence. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 3 (1), 41-64. doi: 10.12973/ijem.3.1.41      NIHMSID 950933

Beers, S., Mickhail, T., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (2017,  June). Effects of transcription ability and transcription mode on translation: Evidence from written compositions and on-line language bursts and pauses during composing by pen or by keyboard in students in grades 4 to 9 with and without persisting dyslexia or dysgraphia. Journal of Writing Research, 9 (1). 1-25. doi: 10.17239/jowr-2017.09.01.01 NIHMSID   950949

Lyman, R., Sanders, E., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V.  (2017). Translating interdisciplinary research on language learning into identifying specific learning disabilities in verbally gifted and average children and youth.  Journal of Behavioral and Brain Research (JBBS), 7 (6)    Special issue on Learning Disorders. DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.76017  NIHMSID 874213 

Alston-Abel, N., & Berninger, V. (2017).  Relationships between home literacy practices and school achievement: Implications for school-home collaboration and consultation practices. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation.  NIHMS 874208  DOI: 10.1080/10474412.2017.1323222  Published on line May 23, 2017 at
ISSN: 1047-4412 (Print) 1532-768X (Online) Journal homepage:

Nielsen, K., Haberman, K., Richards, T.., Abbott, R., Mickail,T., & Berninger, V.(2017, March 27 published first on line) Emotional and behavioral correlates of persisting specific learning disabilities in  written language (SLDs-WL) during middle childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment.    NIHMSID   852098

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Cook, C., & Nagy, W.  (2017). Relationships of attention and executive functions to oral language, reading, and writing skills and systems in middle childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50, 434-449 DOI: 10.1177/0022219415617167 NIHMS 721063
Released to PMC (under embargo)(PMCID:PMC4938801)  also PMC5189981

Davidson, M., & Berninger, V.  (2017, published January 12; posted on line, 2016, December 21). Thinking aloud during idea generating and planning before written translation: Developmental changes from ages 10 to12 in expressing and defending opinions. Cogent Psychology, 3(1), 1276514. Pages 1 to 16. Published by Taylor Francis  NIHMS 846177   Posted on PubMed February 20, 2017

Abbott, R., Fayol, M., Zorman, M., Casalis, S., Nagy, W., & Berninger, V. (2016). Relationships of French and English morphophonemic orthographies to word reading, spelling, and reading comprehension during early and middle childhood. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 31(4), 305–321.doi:  10.1177/0829573516640336, . NIHMS 759762 Released to PMC

Nielsen, K., Abbott, R., Griffin, W., Lott, J., Raskind, W., & Berninger, V. (2016). Evidence-based reading and writing assessment for dyslexia in adolescents and young adults. Learning Disabilities. A Multidisciplinary Journal, 21, 38-56. NIHMS 752395 Released to PMCID:PMC4739804      doi: 10.18666/LDMJ-2016-V21-I1-6971

Davidson, M., & Berninger, V. (2015). Informative, compare and contrast, and persuasive essays of fifth and seventh graders: Not all essay writing the same. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. DOI: 10.1177/0734282915604977 NIHMS 721074   Released to PMC (under embargo)(PMCID: PMC4939906) Pub Med:

Berninger, V., Richards, T., & Abbott, R. (2015, published on line April 21, 2015). Differential diagnosis of dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD: Behavioral and neuroimaging evidence. Reading and Writing. An Interdisciplinary  Journal, 28, 1119-1153 doi:10.1007/s11145-015-9565-0 A2 contains supplementary material  available to authorized users: NIHMS683238  Publ ID 2615-04-21_0002   Released to PMCID 4553247

Alstad, Z., Sanders, E., Abbott, R., Barnett, A., Hendersen, S., Connelly, V., & Berninger, V. (2015). Modes of alphabet letter production during middle childhood and adolescence: Interrelationships with each other and other writing skills. Journal of Writing Research, 6(3), 199-231. NIHMS644747 [NCBI tracking system #16689920] PMC4433034

Niedo, J., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (2014). Predicting levels of reading and writing achievement in typically developing, English-speaking 2nd and 5th graders. Learning and Individual Differences, 32C, 54-68. Published on line April 18, 2014 doi  10.1016/j.lindif.2014.03.013  NIHMS ID: NIHMS580076 
Published PubMed Central (PMC) for public access May 1, 2015:

Berninger, V., & Abbott, R (2013) Differences between children with dyslexia who are and are not gifted in verbal reasoning. Gifted Child Quarterly, 57, .223-233. doi 10.1177/0016986213500342. PubMedCentral release August 30, 2014. NIHMSID #526583  PMC3829472

Bahr, R. H., Silliman, E. R., Berninger, V. W., & Dow, M. (2012). Linguistic pattern analysis of misspellings of typically developing writers in grades 1 to 9. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 55, 1587-1599. First published on April 3, 2012 as doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/10-0335). NIHMS 404240  PMC 3517694

Brooks, A., Berninger, V., Abbott, R., & Richards, T. (2011) Letter naming and letter writing reversals of some children with dyslexia: Symptoms of inefficient phonological and orthographic loops of working memory? Developmental Neuropsychology, 36, 847-868.

Berninger, V., Nagy, W., & Beers, S. (2011) Child writers’ construction and reconstruction of single sentences and construction of multi-sentence texts: Contributions of syntax and transcription to translation. Reading and Writing. An Interdisciplinary Journal,102, 151-182.NIHMS 255211DOI 10.1007/s11145-010-9262-y PMC3048336

Berninger, V., & Abbott, D. (2010). Listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension and written expression: Related yet unique language systems in grades 1, 3, 5, and 7. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 635–651.  NIHMS 279790     released to PMC 3068836
Abbott, R., Berninger, V., & Fayol, M. (2010). Longitudinal relationships of levels of language in writing and between writing and reading in grades 1 to 7. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 281-298.

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Swanson, H. L., Lovitt, D., Trivedi, P., Lin, S., Gould, L., Youngstrom, M., Shimada, S., and Amtmann, D. (2010). Relationship of word- and sentence-level working memory to reading and writing in second, fourth, and sixth grade. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 41,179-193.

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Trivedi, P., Olson, E., Gould, L., Hiramatsu, S., Holsinger, M., McShane, M., Murphy, H., Norton, J., Scuilli Boyd, A., & York Westhaggen, S.  (2010). Applying the multiple dimensions of reading fluency to assessment and instruction. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28, 3-18. © 2009 Sage Publications 10.1177/0734282909336083  hosted at

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Nagy, W., & Carlisle, J.  (2010). Growth in phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness in grades 1 to 6. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 39, 141-163. available on SpringerLink

Garcia, N., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (2010). Predicting poor, average, and superior spellers in grades 1 to 6 from phonological, orthographic, and morphological, spelling, or reading composites. Written Language and Literacy, 13, 61-99.

Altemeier, L., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (2008). Executive functions for reading and writing in typical literacy development and dyslexia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 30, 588-606. First Published on: 09 November 2007 1 – 19  To link to this article: DOI: 10.1080/13803390701562818 URL:

Berninger, V., Nielsen, K., Abbott, R., Wijsman, E., & Raskind, W. (2008b). Gender differences in severity of writing and reading disabilities. Journal of School Psychology, 46,151-172.   

Berninger, V., Nielsen, K., Abbott, R., Wijsman, E., & Raskind, W. (2008a). Writing problems in developmental dyslexia: Under-recognized and under-treated. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 1-21.NIHMS  37383   PMC 2344144

Amtmann, D., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (2007). Mixture growth models for RAN and RAS row by row: Insight into the reading system at work over time. Reading and Writing. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 20, 785-813. Published Springer online: 28 November 2006

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Thomson, J., Wagner, R., Swanson, H.L., Wijsman, E. & Raskind, W.  (2006). Modeling developmental phonological core deficits within a working-memory architecture in children and adults with developmental dyslexia. Scientific Studies in Reading, 10, 165-198.

Nagy, W., Berninger, V., & Abbott, R.  (2006). Contributions of morphology beyond phonology to literacy outcomes of upper elementary and middle school students.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 98,134-147

Berninger, V. Abbott, R., Jones, J., Wolf, B., Gould, L., Anderson-Youngstrom, M., Shimada, S., & Apel, K.  (2006).  Early development of language by hand: Composing-, reading-, listening-, and speaking- connections, three letter writing modes, and fast mapping in spelling. Developmental Neuropsychology, 29, 61-92.

Altemeier, L., Jones, J., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (2006) Executive factors in becoming writing-readers and reading-writers: Note-taking and report writing in third and fifth graders.  Developmental Neuropsychology, 29, 161-173.  

Thomson, J., Chennault, B., Abbott, R., Raskind, W., Richards, T., Aylward, E., & Berninger, V. (senior, corresponding author) (2005). Converging evidence for attentional influences on the orthographic word form in child dyslexics.  Journal of Neurolinguistics. 18, 93-126.

Nagy, W., Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Vaughan, K., & Vermeulen, K. (2003). Relationship of morphology and other language skills to literacy skills in at-risk second graders and at-risk fourth grade writers.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 730-742.   

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Thomson, J., & Raskind, W.  (2001).  Language phenotype for reading and writing disability:  A family approach.  Scientific Studies in Reading, 5, 59-105.

Robinson, N., Abbott, R., Berninger, V., Busse, J., & Mukhopadhyay, S.  (1997). Developmental changes in mathematically precocious young children:  Longitudinal and gender effects. Gifted Child Quarterly, 41, 145-158.

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., & Alsdorf, B.  (1997). Lexical- and sentence- level processes in comprehension of written sentences.  Reading and Writing:  An Interdisciplinary Journal, 9, 135-162.

Swanson, H.L., & Berninger, V.  (1996b).  Individual differences in children's writing:  A function of working memory or reading or both processes?  Reading and Writing.  An Interdisciplinary Journal, 8, 357-383.

Swanson, H.L., & Berninger, V. (1996a).  Individual differences in children’s working memory and writing skills.  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 63, 358-385.

Robinson, N., Abbott, R., Berninger, V., & Busse, J.  (1996).  Developmental changes in mathematically precocious young children: Longitudinal and gender effects.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 341-352.

Berninger, V., Whitaker, D., Feng, Y., Swanson, H.L., & Abbott, R. (1996).  Assessment of planning, translating, and revising in junior high writers.  Journal of School Psychology, 34, 23-52.

Swanson, H.L., & Berninger, V.  (1995).  The role of working memory in learning disabled readers’ comprehension.  Intelligence, 21, 83-108.

Berninger, V. (1994).  Intraindividual differences in levels of language in comprehension of written sentences.  Learning and Individual Differences, 6, 433-457.

Yates, C.,  Berninger, V., & Abbott, R. (1994).  Specific writing disabilities in intellectually gifted children.  Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 18, 131-155.

Berninger, V., Cartwright, A., Yates, C., Swanson, H.L., & Abbott, R. (1994).  Developmental skills related to writing and reading acquisition in the intermediate grades: Shared and unique variance.  Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 6, 161-196.

Whitaker, D., Berninger, V., Johnston, J., & Swanson, L. (1994).  Intraindividual differences in levels of language in intermediate grade writers: Implications for the translating process.  Learning and Individual Differences, 6, 107-130.

Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (1993).  Structural equation modeling of relationships among developmental skills and writing skills in primary and intermediate grade writers.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(3), 478-508.

Berninger, V., & Whitaker, D. (1993a).  Theory-based, branching diagnosis of writing disabilities.  School Psychology Review, 22, 623-642.

Berninger, V., & Whitaker, D. (1993b).  Theory-based diagnosis and remediation of writing disabilities: An update.  Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 9, 150-156.

Berninger, V., & Yates, C. (1993).  Formal operational thought in the gifted:  A post-Piagetian perspective.  Roper Review, 15, 220-224.

Berninger, V., & Fuller, F. (1992).  Gender differences in orthographic, verbal, and compositional fluency: Implications for diagnosis of writing disabilities in primary grade children.  Journal of School Psychology, 30, 363-382.

Berninger, V., Hart, T., Abbott, R., & Karovsky, P. (1992).  Defining reading and writing disabilities with and without IQ:  A flexible, developmental perspective.  Learning Disability Quarterly, 15, 103-118.

Berninger, V., & Abbott, R. (1992).  Unit of analysis and constructive processes of the learner:  Key concepts for educational neuropsychology.  Educational Psychologist, 27, 223-242.

Berninger, V., Yates, C., Cartwright, A., Rutberg, J., Remy, E., & Abbott, R. (1992).  Lower-level developmental skills in beginning writing.  Reading and Writing.  An Interdisciplinary Journal, 4, 257-280.

Berninger, V., Yates, C., & Lester, K. (1991).  Multiple orthographic codes in acquisition of reading and writing skills.  Reading and Writing.  An Interdisciplinary Journal, 3, 115-149.

Berninger, V. (1990).  Multiple orthographic codes:  Key to alternative instructional methodologies for developing orthographic-phonological connections underlying word identification.  School Psychology Review, 19, 518-533.

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., & Shurtleff, H. (1990).  Developmental changes in interrelationships among visible language codes, oral language codes, and reading or spelling.  Learning and Individual Differences, 2, 45-66.

Berninger, V., Proctor, A., DeBruyn, I., & Smith, R. (1988).  Relationship of levels of oral language and written language in beginning readers.  Journal of School Psychology, 26, 341-357.

Berninger, V. (1988).  Development of operational thought without a normal sensorimotor stage.  Intelligence, 12, 219-230.

Berninger, V., Gans, B., St. James, P., & Conners, T. (1988).  Modified WAIS-R for patients with speech and/or hand dysfunction.  Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 69, 250-255.

Berninger, V. & Thalberg, S. (1988).  Levels of analysis in interdisciplinary child assessment.  Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 6, 3-13.

Berninger, V. (1987).  Global, component, and serial processing of printed words in beginning readers.  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 43, 387-418.

Berninger, V., & Gans, B. (1986).  Assessing word processing capability of the nonvocal, nonwriting.  Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 2, 56-63.

Berninger, V., & De Soto, C. (1985). Cognitive representation of personal stereotypes.   European Journal of Social Psychology, 15, 189-211.  (Dissertation Research)

Berninger, G., & Garvey, C. (1981).  Questions and the allocation, construction, and timing of turns in child discourse.  Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 10, 375-402.

Instructional treatment research

Thompson, R., Tanimoto, S., Lyman, R., Geselowitz, K., Begay, K.,  Nielsen, K., Abbott, R., Nagy, W. Raskind, M., & Berninger, V. (2017, September 17). Effective instruction for persisting dyslexia in upper grades: Adding hope stories and computer coding to explicit literacy instruction.  Education and Information Technology.
DOI 10.1007/s10639-017-9647-5   NIHMS907395 Pub ID 2017-09-20_0003

Wolf, B., Berninger, V., & Abbott, R (2017).  Effective beginning handwriting instruction: Multimodal, consistent format for 2 years, and linked to spelling and composing. Reading and Writing. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 30 (2), 299–317.  DOI: 10.1007/s11145-016-9674-4 2016,  July 23 on line NIHMS 805554    Available as ‘Online First’
Pub Med:

Niedo, J., Tanimoto, S., Thompson, R. Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (2016). Computerized instruction in translation strategies for students in upper elementary and middle school grades with persisting learning disabilities in written language. Learning Disabilities. A Multidisciplinary Journal, 21, 62-78.   NIHMS 836952 
Pub Med

Niedo, J., & Berninger, V. W. (2016). Strategies typically developing writers use for translating thought into the next sentence and evolving text: Implications for assessment and instruction. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 6, 276-292..               NIHMS 814082  Posted on PubMed January 30, 2017

Thompson, R. , Tanimoto, S, Abbott, R., Nielsen, K., Geselowitz, K., Lyman, R., Habermann, K., Mickail, T., Raskind, M., Peverly, S. Nagy, W., & Berninger, V. (2016, July 19, on line). Relationships between language input and letter output modes in writing notes and summaries for students in grades 4 to 9 with persisting writing disabilities. Assistive Technology Journal. DOI: 10.1080/10400435.2016.1199066 Link for on line published paper: NIHMS 846387   PMID:27434553   public access:

Richards, T., Peverly, S., Wolf, A., Abbott, R., Tanimoto, S., Thompson, R., Nagy, W. and Berninger, V. (2016, October 1; July 22 on line). Idea units in notes and summaries for read texts by keyboard and pencil in middle childhood students with specific learning disabilities:  Cognitive and brain findings.  Trends in Neuroscience and Education., 5, 146-155.  Pub ID  TINE73 NIHMSID 806920

Tanimoto, S., Thompson, R., Berninger, V., Nagy W., & Abbott, R. (2015). Computerized writing and reading instruction for students in grades 4 to 9 with specific learning disabilities affecting written language. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 31, 671-689. NIHMS 721216     doi: 10.1111/jcal.12110  Released to PMC4743045

Berninger, V., Nagy, W., Tanimoto,S., Thompson, R., & Abbott, R. (2015, published on line October 30, 2014). Computer instruction in handwriting, spelling, and composing for students with specific learning disabilities in grades 4 to 9. Computers and Education, 81, 154-168. DOI information: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.10.00NIHMS636683
NIHMSID Publ.ID: CAE2713 PubMed Central

Niedo, J., Lee, Y. L., Breznitz, Z., & Berninger, V. (2014, May; 2013, October 28 on line). Computerized silent reading rate and strategy instruction for fourth graders at risk in silent reading rate. Learning Disability Quarterly, 37(2), 100-110.DOI 10.1177/0731948713507263  NIHMSID #526584
Published PubMed Central (PMC) for public access May 1, 2015:

Berninger, V., Lee, Y., Abbott, R. & Breznitz, Z. (2011 published on line; 2013). Teaching children with dyslexia to spell in reading-writers’ workshop. Annals of Dyslexia, 63 (1).

Berninger, V., & O’Malley May, M. (2011). Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment for specific learning disabilities involving impairments in written and/or oral language. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44, 167-183. DOI: 10.1007/s11881-011-0054-0

Berninger, V., Rutberg, J., Abbott, R., Garcia, N., Anderson-Youngstrom, M., Brooks, A., & Fulton, C. (2006). Tier 1 and Tier 2 early intervention for handwriting and composing. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 3-30. Honorable mention as one of the best research articles of the year.

Winn, W., Berninger V., Richards, T., Aylward, E., Stock, P., Lee, Y., & Lovitt D. (2006). Effects of nonverbal problem solving treatment on skills for externalizing visual representation in upper elementary grade students with and without dyslexia. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 34, 395-418.

Berninger, V., Winn, W., Stock, P., Abbott, R., Eschen, K., Lin, C., Garcia, N., Anderson-Youngstrom, M.Murphy, H., Lovitt, D., Trivedi, P., Jones, J., Amtmann, D., & Nagy, W.  (2008).Tier 3 specialized writing instruction for students with dyslexia.. Reading and Writing. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 21, 95-129. Printed Springer On Line. May 15, 2007.

Amtmann, D., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (2008). Identifying and predicting classes of response to explicit, phonological spelling instruction during independent composing. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41, 218-234.

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Vermeulen, K., & Fulton, C. (2006). Paths to reading comprehension in at-risk second grade readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39, 334-351.

Chenault, B., Thomson, J., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (2006). Effects of prior attention training on child dyslexics’ response to composition instruction. Developmental Neuropsychology, 29, 243-260.

Berninger, V., Vermeulen, K., Abbott, R., McCutchen, D., Cotton, S., Cude, J., Dorn, S., & Sharon, T.  (2003).  Comparison of three approaches to supplementary reading instruction for low achieving second grade readers.  Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 34, 101-116Received AHSA award for best research article of 2003 for this journal.

Berninger, V., Vaughan, K., Abbott, R., Begay, K., Byrd, K., Curtin, G., Minnich, J. , & Graham, S.  (2002). Teaching spelling and composition alone and together: Implications for the simple view of writing.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 291-304.

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Abbott, S., Graham, S., & Richards, T. (2002). Writing and reading: Connections between language by hand and language by eye. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 39-56.

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Vermeulen, K., Ogier, S., Brooksher, R., Zook, D., & Lemos, Z.  (2002). Comparison of faster and slower responders to early intervention in reading:  Differentiating features of their language profiles. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25, 59-76. 

Quiroga, T., Lemos-Britton, Z., Mostafapour, E., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V.  (2002). Phonological awareness and beginning reading in Spanish-speaking, ESL first graders: Research into practice.  Journal of School Psychology, 40, 85-111.

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Brooksher, R., Lemos, Z., Ogier, S., Zook, D., & Mostafapour, E.   (2000).  A connectionist approach to making the predictability of English orthography explicit to at-risk beginning readers: Evidence for alternative, effective strategies.  Developmental Neuropsychology, 17, 241-271.

Berninger, V., Vaughan, K., Abbott, R., Brooks, A., Begay, K., Curtin, G., Byrd, K., & Graham, S.  (2000).  Language-based spelling instruction: Teaching children to make multiple connections between spoken and written words.  Learning Disability Quarterly, 23, 117-135.

Berninger, V.  (2000).  Dyslexia an invisible, treatable disorder:  The story of Einstein’s Ninja Turtles.  Learning Disability Quarterly, 23, 175-195.

Abbott, S., & Berninger, V.  (1999).  It’s never too late to remediate: A developmental approach to teaching word recognition.  Annals of Dyslexia, 49, 223-250.

Berninger, V.  (1999). Coordinating transcription and text generation in working memory during composing: Automatized and constructive processes.  Learning Disability Quarterly, 22, 99-112.   (Invited)

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Zook, D., Ogier, S., Lemos, Z., & Brooksher, R.  (1999). Early intervention for reading disabilities:  Teaching the alphabet principle within a connectionist framework. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32(6), 491-503.

Berninger, V., Vaughan, K., Abbott, R., Brooks, A., Abbott, S., Reed, E., Rogan, L., & Graham, S.  (1998). Early intervention for spelling problems:  Teaching spelling units of varying size within a multiple connections framework.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 587-605.

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Rogan, L., Reed, E, Abbott, S., Brooks, A., Vaughan, K., & Graham, S.  (1998). Teaching spelling to children with specific learning disabilities: The mind's ear and eye beat the computer or pencil.  Learning Disability Quarterly, 21, 106-122.

Berninger, V., Vaughan, K., Abbott, R., Abbott, S., Brooks, A., Rogan, L., Reed, E., & Graham, S.  (1997). Treatment of handwriting problems in beginning writing:  Transfer from handwriting to composition.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 652-666.

Hart, T., Berninger, V. & Abbott, R.  (1997).  Comparison of teaching single or multiple orthographic-phonological connections for word recognition and spelling:  Implications for instructional consultation.  School Psychology Review, 26, 279-297.

Traweek, D., & Berninger, V.  (1997).  Comparison of beginning literacy programs: Alternative paths to the same learning outcome. Learning Disability Quarterly, 20, 160-168.

Abbott, S., Reed, L., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V.  (1997). Year-long balanced reading/writing tutorial:  A design experiment used for dynamic assessment.  Learning Disability Quarterly, 20, 249-263.

Berninger, V., Abbott, R., Whitaker, D., Sylvester, L., & Nolen, S. (1995).  Integrating low-level skills and high-level skills in treatment protocols for writing disabilities.  Learning Disability Quarterly, 18, 293-309. 

Berninger, V., & Traweek, D. (1991).  Effects of two-phase reading intervention on three orthographic-phonological code connections.  Learning and Individual Differences, 3, 323-338.

Brain research

Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience (JSIN), 3(4): 1-12. doi: 10.15761/JSIN.1000173    Open Access Text (OAT)  NIHMSID 950037
Berninger, V., Richards, T., & Abbott, R. (2017). Brain and behavioral assessment of executive functions for self-regulation of levels of language in reading brain. Journal of Nature and Science, 3(11). e464  NIHMS914072
Wallis, P., Richards, T., Boord, P., Abbott, R. & Berninger, V. (2017). Relationships between translation and transcription processes during fMRI connectivity scanning and coded translation and transcription in writing products after scanning in children with and without transcription disabilities. Creative Education, 8 716-748.  
 Pub Med:
Richards, T., Berninger, V., Yagel, K., Abbott, R., & Peterson, D.  (2018).  Brain’s functional network clustering coefficient changes in response to instruction (RTI) in students with and without reading disabilities: Multi-leveled reading brain’s RTI.  Cogent Psychology Neuroscience 5: 1424680. Pp. 1-19.  DOI 10.1080/23311908.2018.1424680
NIHMSID 950032
Richards, T., Berninger, V., Yagel, K., Abbott, R., & Peterson, D.  (2017, April). Changes in DTI Diffusivity and fMRI connectivity cluster coefficients for students with and without specific learning disabilities in written language: Brain’s response to writing instruction. Journal of Nature and Science (JNSCI), 3(4) e350, 1-11.     NIHMS869458
Pub Med:
Yagle, K., Richards, T., Askren, K., Mestre, Z., Beers, S., Abbott, R., Nagy, W., & Berninger, V. (2017). Relationships between eye movements during sentence reading comprehension, word spelling and reading, and DTI and fMRI connectivity in students with and without dysgraphia or dyslexia. Journal of Systems and Integrated Neuroscience, 3(1), 1-11.
doi: 10.15761/JSIN.1000150    NIHMS 846434
Richards, T., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V.  (2017).  Relationships between presence or absence of ADHD and fMRI connectivity writing tasks in children with dysgraphia. Journal of  Nature and Sciience, 2(12): e270  ISSN 2377-2700 Journal Online:  NIHMSID  837318  Pub Med:
Richards, T., Pettet, M., Askren, K., Mestre, Z., Grabowski, T., Yagle, K., Wallis, P., Northey, M., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (2017, June 28 published on line).  ERPs while judging meaningfulness of sentences with and without homonym or morpheme spelling foils: Comparing 4th to 9th graders with and without spelling disabilities.  Developmental Neuropsychology, 42 (4), 284-297, DOI: 10.1080/87565641.2016.1243110.    To link to this article:      NIHMS 837318 
Longcamp, M., Richards, T.L., Velay, J.L., Berninger, V. (2017, February 7). Neuroanatomy of handwriting and related reading and writing skills in adults and children with and without learning disabilities: French-American connections. Pratiques.  NIHMSID  757104
Richards, T., Nagy, W., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V. (2016).  Brain connectivity associated with cascading levels of language.  Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience (JSIN), 2, 219-229. (ISSN: 2059-9781) doi: 10.15761/JSIN.1000139 NIHMSID 836580  Pub Med Central January 30, 2017
Richards, T.L, Grabowksi, T., Askren, K., Boord, P., Yagle, K.,Mestre, Z., Robinson, O., Welker, D. Gulliford, V, Nagy, W., &  Berninger, V.  (2015, posted on line March 28). Contrasting brain patterns of writing-related DTI parameters, fMRI connectivity, and DTI-fMRI connectivity correlations in children with and without dysgraphia or dyslexia Neuroimage Clinical, 8, 1-14. http://dx.doi.orgg/10.1016/j.nicl.201503.018              ...                  PMC 44737
Reitz , F., Richards, T., Wu, K., Boord, P., Askren, K., Lewis, T., & Berninger, V. (2013). A low-cost, computer-interfaced drawing pad for fMRI studies of dysgraphia and dyslexia. Sensors, 13, 5099-5108; doi:10.3390/s130405099 PMCID:PMC3673127
Richards, T., Berninger, V., Stock, P., Altemeier, L., Trivedi, P., & Maravilla, K. (2011).Differences between good and poor child writers on fMRI contrasts for writing newly taught and highly practiced letter forms. Reading and Writing, 24(5), 493-516.
Richards, T., Berninger, V., Stock, P., Altemeier, L., Trivedi, P., & Maravilla, K. (2009). fMRI sequential-finger movement activation differentiating good and poor writers. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 29, 1-17. To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/13803390902780201   URL:
Richards, T., Berninger, V., Winn, W., Swanson, H.L., Stock, P., Liang, O., & Abbott, R. (2009).  Differences in fMRI activation between children with and without spelling disability on 2-back/0-back working memory contrast. Journal of Writing Research, 1(2), 93-123.  Journal of Writing Research JOWR-website
Berninger, V., Richards, T., Stock, P., Abbott, R., Trivedi, P., Altemeier, L., & Hayes, J. R. (2009). fMRI activation related to nature of ideas generated and differences between good and poor writers during idea generation. British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph Series II, 6, 77-93.
Richards, T., Berninger, V. & Fayol, M. (2009). FMRI activation differences between 11- year-old good and poor spellers’ access in working memory to temporary and long-term orthographic representations.  Journal of Neurolinguistics, 22, 327-353.  doi:10.1016/j.jneuroling.2008.11.002
Richards, T., & Berninger,V. (2008). Abnormal fMRI connectivity in children with dyslexia during a phoneme task: Before but not after treatment. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 21,294-304. Published on line by ScienceDirect for Elsevier 2007.
Richards, T., Stevenson, J., Crouch,  J., Johnson, L. C., Maravilla, K., Stock, P., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V.  (2008). Tract-based spatial statistics of diffusion tensor imaging in adults with dyslexia. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 29, 1134-1139.
Richards, T., Berninger, V., Winn W., Stock, P., Wagner, R., Muse, A., & Maravilla, K. (2007). fMRI activation in children with dyslexia during pseudoword aural repeat and visual decode: Before and after instruction. Neuropsychology. 21, 732-747.
Richards, T., Aylward, E., Raskind, W., Abbott, R., Field,. K., Parsons, A., Richards, A., Nagy, W., Eckert, M., Leonard, C., & Berninger, V.  (2006b). Converging evidence for triple word form theory in children with dyslexia. Developmental Neuropsychology, 30, 547-589.
Richards, T., Aylward, E., Berninger, V., Field, K., Parsons, A., Richards, A., & Nagy, W. (2006a). Individual fMRI activation in orthographic mapping and morpheme mapping after orthographic or morphological spelling treatment in child dyslexics. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 19, 56-86.
Stanberry, L., Richards, T, Berninger, V., Nandy, R., Aylward, E., Maravilla, K., & Stock, P., Cordes, D. (2006). Low frequency signal changes reflect differences in functional connectivity between good readers and dyslexics during continuous phoneme mapping. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 24, 217-229. 
Leonard, C., Eckert, M., Given, B., Berninger, V., & Eden, G. (2006). Individual differences in anatomy predict reading and oral language deficits.  Brain, 129, 3329-3342.
Richards, T., Berninger, V., Nagy, W., Parsons, A., Field, K., Richards, A. (2005). Brain activation during language task contrasts in children with and without dyslexia: Inferring mapping processes and assessing response to spelling instruction. Educational and Child Psychology, 22(2), 62-80.
Eckert, M., Leonard, C., Wilke, M., Eckert, M., Richards, T., Richards, A., & Berninger, V.  (2005). Anatomical signature of dyslexia in children: Unique information from manual-based and voxel-based morphometry brain measures. Cortex, 41, 304-315. 
Aylward, E., Richards, T., Berninger, V., Nagy, W., Field, K., Grimme, A., Richards, A., Thomson, J., & Cramer, S. (2003). Instructional treatment associated with changes in brain activation in children with dyslexia. Neurology, 61, 212-219.
Eckert, M., Leonard, C., Richards, T., Aylward, E., Thomson, J., & Berninger, V.  (2003).   Anatomical correlates of dyslexia: Frontal and cerebellar findings. Brain, 126 (2), 482-494. 
Richards, T., Berninger, V., Aylward, E., Richards, A., Thomson, J., Nagy, W., Carlisle, J., Dager, S., & Abbott, R.  (2002).  Reproducibility of proton MR spectroscopic imaging PEPSI):  Comparison of dyslexic and normal reading children and effects of treatment on brain lactate levels during language tasks. American Journal of Neuroradiology. 23, 1678-1685.
Serafini, S., Steury, K., Richards, T., Corina, D., Abbott, R., & Berninger, V.  (2001). Comparison of fMRI and PEPSI during language processing in children. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 45, 217-225.
Corina, D., Richards, T., Serafini, S., Richards, A., Steury, K., Abbott, R., Echelard, D., Maravilla, K., & Berninger, V.  (2001).  fMRI auditory language differences between dyslexic and able reading children.  Neuroreport,12, 1195-1201.
Richards, T., Corina, D., Serafini, S., Steury, K., Dager, S., Marro, K., Abbott, R., Maravilla, K., & Berninger, V. (2000). Effects of phonologically-driven treatment for dyslexia on lactate levels as measured by proton MRSI.  American Journal of Neuroradiology, 21, 916-922.
Richards, T., Dager, S.. Corina, D., Serafini, S., Heidel, C., Steury, K., Strauss, W., Hayes, C., Abbott, R., Kraft, S., Shaw, D., Posse, S., & Berninger, V.  (1999).  Dyslexic children have abnormal brain lactate response to reading-related language tasks. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 20, 1393-1398.

Genetics research

Abbott, R., Raskind, W., Matsushita, M., Richards, T., Price, N., & Berninger, V. (2017). Dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD during middle childhood and early adolescence: Evidence for genetic effects on hallmark phenotypes.  Biomarkers and Genes, 1 (1), 1-10.
doi: 10.15761/BG.1000103    NIHMSID 950942
Raskind, W., Peters, B., Richards, T., Eckert, M., & Berninger, V. (2012). The Genetics of reading disabilities: From phenotype to candidate genes.  Frontiers in Psychology. 3, 601. Published online 2013 January 7. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00601 PMCID: PMC3538356
Rubenstein, K., Raskind, W., Berninger, V., Matsushita,, M., & Wijsman, E. (2014). Genome scan for cognitive trait loci of dyslexia: rapid naming and rapid switching of letters, numbers, and colors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 165, 345-356. NIHMS ID -595138    PMCID: PMC4053475
Rubenstein, K., Matsushita, M., Berninger, V., Raskind, W., & Wijsman, E. (2011). Genome scan for spelling deficits: Effects of verbal IQ on models of transmission and trait gene localization. Behavioral Genetics. An International Journal Devoted to the Inheritance of Behavior, 41, 31-42.
Peter, B., Raskind, W., Matsushita, M., Lisowski, M., Vu, T., Berninger, V., Wijsman, E., & Brkanac, Z. (2011). Replication of CNTNAP2 association with nonword repetition and support for FOXP2 association with timed reading and motor activities in a dyslexia family sample. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 3, 39-49.
Brkanac, Z., Chapman, C., Igo, R., Matsushita, M., Nielsen, K., Berninger, V., Wijsman, E., & Raskind, W. (2008). Genome scan of a nonword repetition phenotype in families with dyslexia: Evidence for multiple loci. Behavioral Genetics, 38, 462–475. NIHMS 189941 released to PMC2853749
Brkanac, Z., Chapman, N., Matsushita, M., Chun, L., Nielsen, K., Cochrane, E.,  Berninger, V.,  Wijsman, E., & Raskind, W. (2007, June). Evaluation of candidate genes for DYX1 and DYX2 in families with dyslexia. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 144 B, 556-560. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics. Online ISSN: 1552-485X. Print ISSN: 1552-4841 Copyright Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Igo, R., Chapman, N., Berninger, V., Matsushita, M., Brkanac, Z., Rothstein, J., Holtzman, T., Nielsen, K., Raskind, W., & Wijsman, E. (2006). Genomewide scan for real-word reading subphenotypes of dyslexia: Novel chromosome 13 locus and genetic complexity. American Journal of Medical Genetics/Neuropsychiatric Genetics.141B:15-27. NIHMS 68224 released to PMC2556979
Raskind, W., Igo, R., Chapman, N., Berninger, V., Thomson, J., Matsushita, M., Brkanac, Z., Holzman, T., Brown, M., & Wijsman, E.  (2005). A genome scan in multigenerational families with dyslexia: Identification of a novel locus on chromosome 2q that contributes to phonological decoding efficiency. Molecular Psychiatry, 10(7):699-711.
Chapman, N., Igo, R., Thomson, J., Matsushita, M., Brkanac, Z., Hotzman, T., Berninger, V., Wijsman, E., & Raskind, W. (2004). Linkage analyses of four regions previously implicated in dyslexia: confirmation of a locus on chromosome 15q.  American Journal of Medical Genetics/Neuropsychiatric Genetics.  131B: 67-75. and American Journal of Medical Genetics Supplement 03174   9999:1 (2004).
Chapman, N. Raskind, W., Thomson, J., Berninger, V., & Wijsman, E.  (2003).  Segregation analysis of phenotypic components of learning disabilities.II. Phonological decoding. American Journal of Medical Genetics/Neuropsychiatric Genetics.    121B:60-70.
Hsu, L., Wijsman, E., Berninger, V., Thomson, J., & Raskind, W.  (2002).  Familial aggregation of dyslexia phenotypes:  Paired correlated measures. American Journal of Medical Genetics/Neuropsychiatric Genetics.  114, 471-478. 
Wijsman, E., Peterson, D., Leutennegger, A., Thomson, J., Goddard, K., Hsu, L., Berninger, V., & Raskind, W.  (2000).  Segregation analysis of phenotypic  components of learning disabilities I.  Nonword memory and digit span.  American Journal of Human Genetics, 67, 631-646.
Raskind, W., Hsu, L., Thomson, J., Berninger, V., & Wijsman, E.  (2000).  Familial aggregation of phenotypic subtypes in dyslexia. Behavior Genetics, 30, 385-396. 

Ph.D., Psychology, 1981, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
M.Ed., Reading and Language, 1970, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
B.A., Psychology, magna cum laude, 1967, Elizabethtown College, Elizabethtown, PA